Audit

Audit is a planned and documented examination performed by qualified expert to determine by evaluation of an objective evidence the conformity with established procedures, or related documents and the effectiveness of implementation. An audit can apply to a whole organization or can aim at a product, process or function.

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AUKOM training

Providing a machine-independent training concept, including established and practice-tested procedures with interfaces for the manufacturer-specific machine training, ending with a final test and a generally accepted certificate.

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Calibration

Set of operations used to establish the relationship between values indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system and the corresponding known values of a measured quantity.

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Calibre

A calibre involves one or more criteria used to sort and select objects of similar nature. It is not a form of measurement, in the sense that it does not deliver a value, but rather determines conformity with a criterion. The term calibre also describes the instrument used to determine or control the size of an object.

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Certificate on Conformity

Conformity is the state in which something is in full agreement and total adequacy with specified or standardized requirements. Conformity certification is a verification process designed to ascertain that a product or service conforms to a given quality management standard.

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CSL1/CS1, CSL2/CS2 and CSL3/CS3

CSL1: Level I Controlled Shipping includes a problem solving process as well as a redundant inspection process. The inspection process is enacted by the supplier’s employees at the supplier’s location in order to isolate GM from receipt of nonconforming parts/material.

CSL 2: Level II Controlled Shipping includes the same processes as Level I controlled shipping, with an added inspection process that is completed by an impartial third party. The third party is selected by GM and paid by the supplier. In special cases, the Level II inspection may be required to be performed outside the supplier’s facilities at a facility deemed appropriate by GM.

CSL3: This level is similar to CS2 and is supplemented by corrective actions.

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Dimensional measurement

Dimensional measurements are used in metrology to ascertain the dimensional validity of a part, check that its dimensions or forms are conform and fall within the specified tolerance intervals. The measurements can be one-dimensional, two-dimensional or three dimensional, in order to obtain the coordinates of points measured on a mechanical part.

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DISCUS

Created by Discus Software Company, DISCUS is a software which permits to reduce the duration of the First Article Inspection (FAI) process to its half by providing a faster method for documentation and management processes.

Today, subcontractors register all FAI measurements manually—dimension by dimension—on an Excel sheet. Thanks to DISCUS, the measurement data is automatically synchronized to the customer’s database. Without the need of manual registration and printing, data is sent to DISCUS software during 3D measurement.
Required time for the measurement of 100 dimensions: approximately 3 hours. With DISCUS: approximately 30 seconds.

With DISCUS:

  • Customer’s FAI is performed by specialists
  • Thanks to DISCUS, TRIGO reduces the duration of FAI process to its half, saving the customer’s time and money through an innovative and paperless solution
  • Customer’s teams stay focused on their core business, increasing efficiency
  • High flexibility: TRIGO can perform several FAIs at the same time thanks to TRIGO’s pool of specified technicians

TRIGO has exclusive rights over the technical use in Europe, and over the distribution of the tool in Germany.

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Fault

Failure to satisfy a reasonable requirement or expectation in view of an intended use, including those relating to security.

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First article inspection (FAI)

Term used in the aerospace and rail sectors, equivalent to the initial samples process in the automotive industry.

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Gauge

A gauge is an instrument used to measure and control the dimensions through comparison.

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Initial samples

The first pieces produced in the initial run. Their thorough control allows subsequent validation of the production process.

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Interior recovering (saddlery, electricity, upholstery...)

Replacement or rework on cosmetic elements present inside or outside a vehicle.

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Management of initial samples

Initial samples: the first parts produced under serial conditions.

Initial samples are checked using quality inspection procedures to improve production process steps and fully meet quality and conformity requirements defined in the project phase.

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Metrology

Metrology is the science of measurement and its applications. It includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurements, regardless of the degree of measurement uncertainty and field of application. Industrial metrology ensures the correct operation of measuring instruments used in industry, such as processes for design, testing, quality control or production.

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Monitoring plan / control plan

The primary aim of Control Plans is to create a structured approach for control over processes and product characteristics while keeping the organizational focus on characteristics important to the customer.

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Non-conformity

Non-compliance, non-quality or non-conformity covers the non-fulfillment of a specified requirement.

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Painting masking

Covering / masking a part or a part of the sheet metal before painting, in order to protect its surface. 

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Paintless Dent Removal

Paintless Dent Removal technique restores the original form of the sheet metal using methods and specific tools, without using mastic or paint.

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PPAP

PPAP stands for Production Part Approval Process. This process was defined by the automotive industry to set up generic requirements for approval of production parts/ certification processes. It is aimed to make a supplier understand and implement all specification requirements.

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PPM: parts per million

The PPM rate is frequently used as a performance quality indicator of a process in terms of non-conforming materials, particularly in the automotive sector. It measures the number of nonconforming parts per million parts produced or delivered. (It may contain rejected/ returned or suspected materials as well.)

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Pre-shipment inspection

Quality control procedure performed before shipment of a lot to the customer. This is usually performed either in the supplier’s premises prior to shipping of the items, or at some point in the supply chain (warehouse, port area…).

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Project phase

Project phase includes preliminary design and product development and involves the creation of production equipment and processes, as well as means of control, including quality control.

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Protyping

Modification during the project phase of a part or a component which proved to be nonconforming during the assembly.

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Quality

In industry and concepts of scientific management (Taylorism), the term quality reflects the “one best way” to manufacture something. Quality standards apply both to products (industrial, intellectual, services, healthcare, teaching…) and the way they are produced. Within technical quality terms, it describes items free of deficiencies.

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Quality control or quality inspection

Quality control (aka quality inspection) is an operation used to determine, through appropriate means, whether a controlled product (or service, document, source code…) complies with a set of predetermined specifications and requirements. The resulting decision is acceptance, rejection or reworking. Measuring, examining, testing and gauging of a product or service according to certain standards and comparing the results with specified requirements to find out if conformity is reached.

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Quality Engineering

Quality engineering is designed to organize and coordinate the implementation of quality and quality control for products and services across all of a company’s processes and structures, by developing and deploying methods and tools made available to company services in the interests of quality preservation and improvement.

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Quality Firewall

Firewall is a demand by a supplier to place a redundant inspection process (over and above normal controls) to sort for defective material. This is done to isolate Customer from defective products. The data from the inspection is critical and must be used to drive process improvements. This activity will be in addition to Final Control and the “person performing the sort” is an impartial third party. This is needed in selective cases where the supplier’s personnel and/or process have proven to be incapable to isolate the problem. 

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Quality Management

Quality management describes the set of organizational skills that contribute to conforming with a standard in the production of goods or services. Managing a process to reach maximum satisfaction.

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Quality Management System (QMS)

A set of internal guidelines defining how quality policies and targets must be taken into consideration and implemented in order to control and improve various processes used within an organization. A quality management system interacts directly with a company’s continuous improvement and quality performance.

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Quality systems

A full set of organization, procedures, processes and resources needed to realize quality management.

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Quality Tools (8D, FMEA, 5P, Ishikawa diagram…)

A technique or method to assist and develop the activities of process quality management.

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Reject rate

Percentage of non-conforming products at the end of a production process. The reject rate is an indicator used in quality management and quality control.

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Reworking

In some instances, a quality fault can be put right so as to maintain the flow of parts and avoid supply disruptions. This is known as “reworking”, and describes a wide array of procedures of varying nature and scope.

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Roughing

Roughing, a method to handle damaged car body surfaces by the use of thinners, putties, and primers, etc., can minimize the damage caused by hail. This technique reduces the associated costs of rework, because it accelerates rework time.

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Run life

Run life is the second phase of a product’s life cycle. It features industrialization (production equipment setup), control processes and methods (including quality control), production and commissioning.

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Supplier Quality Assurance (SQA)

Supplier Quality Assurance (SQA), as a part of Quality Assurance activities, define and implement methodologies for certain aspects of supplier quality performance. Its main goal, in practice, is to ensure the conformity of products in accordance with the customer's requirements and to serve as an interactive relationship between the customer and the supplier.

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TREQ

TRIGO Experts for Quality (dedicated division of TRIGO with value-added services: Consulting, Auditing, Training, Resident Engineering and Metrology)

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